447 Such agreements, in the form of treaties providing for the reciprocal reduction of Congressional obligations, have often been concluded, but from the Customs Act of 1890,449, Congress began to introduce provisions authorizing the executive branch to negotiate reciprocity without the need to negotiate reciprocity, beginning with the Customs Act of 1890.449. to take further legislative action. The authority was extended into successive laws.450 Then, in the Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act of 1934,451 Congress authorized the President to enter into agreements with other nations for tariff reduction and other barriers to international trade and to bring the reductions into effect by proclamation.452 In addition to treaties that cannot enter into force and become binding on the United States without the Council and Senate approval. , there are other types of international agreements concluded by the executive and not submitted to the Senate. These are seen in the United States as executive agreements and not as treaties, a distinction that has only domestic political importance. International law considers that any form of international agreement is binding, regardless of its designation by national law. Executive agreement of Congress, a binding agreement between the United States and a foreign country, which is easier to enact than a formal treaty, but is technically more limited. The implementation of executive agreements increased considerably after 1939. Prior to 1940, the U.S. Senate had ratified 800 treaties and presidents had concluded 1,200 executive agreements; From 1940 to 1989, during World War II and the Cold War, presidents signed nearly 800 treaties, but concluded more than 13,000 executive treaties. The challenge of securing a two-thirds majority on contracts was one of the motivations for the huge increase in executive agreements after World War II.

In 1952, for example, the United States signed 14 treaties and 291 executive agreements. These were more executive agreements than those concluded during the century from 1789 to 1889. Executive agreements continue to grow rapidly.